The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

Pakistani soldiers

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 resulted in the destruction of a great number of Pakistani tanks as well as the death of many Pakistani soldiers. Politically, little was achieved. The 1948 border was simply re-established, and India’s promise for a plebiscite in Kashmir was renewed (although the plebiscite has yet to occur).

The 1965 war began when the current governor-general of Pakistan, General Muhammad Ayub Khan signed a friendship treaty with China. This brought concerns to India about the border between Kashmir and China. Negotiations ensued but soon broke down, and a border conflict began in April of 1965. The technologically superior (and American-supplied) Pakistani army held the upper hand, and a cease-fire was created soon after the war began at India’s request.

However, Pakistan, despite the fact that the U.N. intervention resulted in yet another reacceptance of the 1948 border, believed that India had indeed lost the war. Brazen with this false victory, Pakistan again attempted to seize Kashmir in August of 1965. India responded with the mobilization of 900,000 troops towards Pakistan. After some fighting (and much destruction of the Pakistani armed forces) the U.N. again brokered a cease-fire, once again using the 1948 battle lines.

A Pakistani tank

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